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Labour market access
The Government of Canada took steps in 2013 and 2014 to restrict the immigration of foreign workers under the Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP). Most of these restrictions are universal, not being focused on any one sector or any one trading partner, but the impact may be greatest on low-skill sectors and countries from which workers in these sectors emigrate.
As of July, 2013, all employers applying for a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) are required to respond to additional questions on their use of temporary foreign workers to ensure that the TFWP is not used to facilitate the outsourcing of Canadian jobs. According to the government, 'This new measure was introduced as a result of concerns in spring 2013 about a situation where temporary foreign workers were alleged to be displacing Canadian workers whose positions were ultimately being transferred to another country.' In response to these concerns, the following questions were added to the LMIA application form:
Again according to the Government, 'These questions help ensure that no Canadian workers are displaced as a result of outsourcing. Employers are also required to sign a declaration attesting that hiring temporary foreign workers will not result in outsourcing or offshoring.'
The Government followed up with further changes to the TFWP program and the LMIA process in 2014, taking actions that were variously entered into effect immediately or were phased in over time (see http://www.esdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/foreign_workers/reform/timeline.shtml). Each of the following aspects of the overhaul would appear prima facie either to increase the burdens on applicants or otherwise to reduce the benefits for foreign workers and Canadian employers:
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