Beggar-Thy-Poor-Neighbour: Crisis-Era Protectionism and Developing Countries
The most vulnerable trading Nations on Earth - the Least Developed Countries and Countries from Sub-Saharan Africa- have long been encouraged by Western donors, international development Organisations and economists to integrate their economies into world markets.This volume examines the extent to which such integration was frustrated by protectionism measures taking since the onset on Greta Recession.
Drawing upon the data compiled by Global Trade Alert, an independent protectionist monitoring service, the policy stance towards Lesse Developed Countries and Sub-Saharan African Nations- both beggar-thy-neighbour and liberalising - are characterised and their effects analysed by expert knowledgeable about both of these groups of developing countries. Implications for policymaking at the national and international level, including at the G20, are explored.
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1. Beggar-Thy-Poor-Neighbour: The incidence of Protectionism in LDCs and Sub-Saharan Africa
Part one: The Impact of Protectionism on Developing Countries
2. Free trade, protectionism and the balance of trade: New empirical insights
3. Trade measures of OECD countries and the decline in exports of African Coutires: is murky protectionism responsible?
4. Protectionist Trade Policy Instruments in the global economic crises: an impact analysis from Africa-EU and Africa-US trade relations
5. SADC Crisis era trade policy and its effect on intra regional trade and investiments
6. The conomic crisis and the protection of domestic workers: the case of Foreign Workers Firsts out policy in Malaysia's manufacturing sector.
Part two: Country Specific Data on the Incidence of Crisis- Era Protectionism on the Least Developed Countries and on Africa
Date Published: 22 Jul 2014
In a report to G20 leaders the B20's (a business group) Trade Taskforce employed GTA data to argue that "the spirit of the (G20) standstill (on protectionism) has not been honoured with respect to non-tariff barriers." Page 8 of the following report contains an informative chart concerning the level and composition of crisis-era protectionism, see http://www.b20australia.info/Documents/B20%20Trade%20Taskforce%20Report.pdf
The B20 report states that the G20 members have implemented in total 1500 protectionist measures. As of today (20 July 2014), the GTA has found that the G20 members have implemented 2198 measures that discriminate against foreign commercial interests, of which 1856 are still in effect. For details consult the advanced search page of this site or email Simon Evenett at email@example.com
20 July 2014
On 27 June 2014 the Wall Street Journal published an article describing growing protectionism in the European Union. While no statistics were provided, a number of experts commented on recent developments (involving blocked or modified foreign takeovers) and fears that the next European Commission will weaken key rules.
Readers may be interested in knowing that since 1 January 2014 the members of the European Union have implemented 14 measures that harmed foreign commercial interests and 13 measures that liberalised commerce or made EU commercial policies more transparent. Please note that, if prior experience is anything to go by, reporting lags will result in sharp upward revisions in these numbers. Readers can track the number of measures implemented by the European Union (including those imposed by the European Commission) by using the "advanced search" function on this webste.
The article can be found at:
On 18 June 2014 the Financial Times reported on the latest WTO report on protectionism by the G20 countries. That report can be found at www.ft.com/cms/s/0/95ea22a8-f6ba-11e3-b271-00144feabdc0.html
In the latest edition of Trade Finance, Johannes Fritz and Martin Wermelinger employed GTA data to interpret the protectionist dynamics of recent years. Their analysis can be found at the following URL:
On 26 June 2014 the World Bank published a report on the resort to temporary trade barriers (normally taken to be antidumping, countervailing and safeguards measures) during 2013. The report focuses on the resort to these measures by 25 jurisdictions and does not purport to have global coverage.
Readers may be interested in knowing that by the end of June 2014 the GTA team had found that during 2013 a total of 147 trade defence investigations resulted in duties being imposed and that another 80 investigations commenced without duties being imposed by the end of that year. These figures are global totals. It may also be of interest that by the end of June 2014 a total of 647 measures were taken by governments during 2013 that discriminated against foreign commercial interests, implying that implemented trade defence measures represented 22% of the total number of beggar thy neighbour measures implemented during 2013.
This World Bank report can be downloaded at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTTRADERESEARCH/Resources/544824-127...
On 18 June 2014 the World Trade Organization published its latest semi-annual report on trade policy developments ostensibly by the G20 nations. This report includes "headline" numbers on the "trade restrictive" measures implemented by the G20 countries. The next GTA report will contain a comparison of the number of measures reported by the WTO in its seven latest reports and those found by the GTA team.
The June 2014 WTO report can be found at: http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news14_e/igo_17jun14_e.htm
What Restraint? Five Years of G20 Pledges on Trade
For the past five years, leaders of the G20 countries have said they would not implement new trade restrictions, WTO-inconsistent export subsidies, or export taxes and quotas. They also promised to "roll back" any crisis-era protectionism that was imposed. Drawing upon nearly 3,800 separate reports of trade-related government measures collected and published by the Global Trade Alert team, this Report contains the most up-to-date and comprehensive assessment of adherence to the G20's "standstill" on protectionism. At a time when the World Trade Organization is in the doldrums, the performance of this non-binding alternative to intergovernmental cooperation on commercial policies takes on greater significance.
This report may be of interest to government officials, scholars, analysts, media experts, and students interested in how the governments of the world's largest economies have mixed trade liberalisation and beggar-thy-neighbour policies as the Great Recession has unfolded. The report contains six new measures of the resort to protectionism and the propensity to unwind it, computed and reported for each G20 member. Such measures, which can be tracked over time, will add to the transparency of the world trading system.
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1. Executive Summary
Part One: Benchmarking the G20’s Resort to Protectionism and Trade Liberalisation
Charts for each G20 Member
Maps for each G20 Member
Part Two: Five Years of Crisis-Era Protectionsim
2. The Global Landscape of Protectionism Five Years On
3. The Efficacy of the G20’s Commitments on Protectionism – in the G20’s own words
4. The Evolution of G20 Commercial Policies During Five Years of Standstill Pledges
5 Reporting Lags and Assessing the Resort to Protectionism
Part Three: The G20’s Resort to Protectionism – Country Tables
Date Published: 3 Sep 2013
Not Just Victims: Latin America and Crisis-Era Protectionism - The 13th GTA Report
The global economic crisis that began to unfold in 2007 hit Latin America hard, slowing down economic growth considerably. The 13th Report from Global Trade Alert shows that Latin America has not just been a victim of protectionism imposed by other parts of the world, as some policymakers and commentators assert.
Drawing upon the most extensive contemporary data set on crisis-era policy responses, the Global Trade Alert, this volume shows that many Latin American governments – in particular, Argentina and Brazil – have taken numerous, occasionally creative steps to tilt the playing field in favour of domestic firms.
This volume documents those steps and discusses their rationale and whether these changes presage a marked shift in Latin American development strategy. As such, it will be of interest to policymakers, officials in national governments and international institutions, university researchers and trade policy analysts, and those interested in Latin American development.
Download the report here.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction: Crisis-Era Protectionism in Latin America in Context
Simon J. Evenett
Section One: Studies of Protectionism in Latin America
2. Crisis-Era Protectionism in Latin America
3. Policies and Instruments Employed By Argentina and Brazil
Carolina Szpak and Diana Tussie
4. Textiles and Footwear in Argentina
5. Rationales for Crisis-Era Protectionism: The Cases of Argentina and Brazil
Eduardo Bianchi and Welber Barral
6. Is there a New Protectionism in Latin America?
Section Two: Country-Specific Information on the Incidence of Protectionism in Latin America
Date Published: 22 Jul 2013
Protectionism's Quiet Return: GTA's Pre-G8 Summit Report
Given that the current holder of this year’s G8 Presidency, the UK, has made combatting protectionism a priority, the 12th GTA report has been compiled and released just before the G8 Summit in Lough Erne, Northern Ireland, on 17-18 June 2013. Concerns about protectionism are not confined to the UK, however. In April 2013, when introducing reduced forecasts for world trade growth, the Director-General of the WTO, Mr. Pascal Lamy, warned that the protectionist threat may be greater now than at any time since the onset of the global economic crisis. On the basis of the evidence presented here, Mr Lamy’s concerns were well founded.
Building on a massive update of Global Trade Alert that saw 904 new entries added to the GTA database which now comprises 3,334 reports on government measures, this report provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of protectionist and trade-liberalising dynamics.
Download the report here.
Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary
2. Maps of the Countries Harmed by each G8 Member
3. The Landscape of Crisis-Era Protectionism before the 2013 G8 Summit
4. The G8 and Crisis-Era Protectionism: Country Tables
Date Published: 12 Jun 2013